One of the most common medical conditions that affects the bladder is urinary incontinence. This type of incontinence can affect both sexes, but it is most common to present in women. In fact, according to the American Academy of Physicians (AAP), almost 50% of women in their 40s and 50s have some form of urinary incontinence. One type being urinary stress incontinence.

Professor Barry O'Reilly confirmed that around 50% of women experience a form of urinary incontinence at some stage in their lives. This may either be an overactive bladder or urinary stress incontinence. Quoted in the Irish Times, in February 2018, Prof. O'Reilly stated, "Women should not assume that incontinence is simply a natural result of ageing and childbirth."

The Urinary Stress Incontinence page answers the following questions:

1. What is urinary stress incontinence?

2. Which are the causes of urinary stress incontinence?

3. How is urinary stress incontinence diagnosed?

4. What are the treatments available for urinary stress incontinence?

Urinary Stress Incontinence

1. What is urinary stress incontinence?

Urinary stress incontinence is the uncontrolled loss of urine, which occurs when a physical movement or activity like running, lifting weights, coughing or just sneezing, increases the abdominal pressure, affecting the bladder.

People may have urine leakage when coughing, sneezing or laughing. Also patients can have a urine loss while standing up, getting out of the car or having sex. Basically, any activity that increases the abdominal pressure can lead to urine loss, especially if the bladder is full.

It is very important to know that this type of incontinence is not related to psychological stress, but it can make people feel embarrassed, possibly placing limitations and changes in their work and social life.

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2. What are the causes of urinary stress incontinence?

The main cause of this condition is the weakening of the pelvic floor muscles, which are the ones that support the bladder, among other pelvic structures. A secondary cause of this type of incontinence is the weakening of the urinary sphincter, which is the muscle in charge of controlling the release of urine. When these muscles become weak, anything capable of increasing the pressure outside the bladder can lead to a urine leakage.

Basically, these muscles can lose their strength due to:

Childbirth: this is the most common cause of the weakening of the pelvic muscles in women. During labour, some nerves and tissues can get damaged, leading to urinary incontinence sometimes quite soon after childbirth or even many years after birth.

Prostate surgical manipulation: men can suffer from urinary stress incontinence too, but it is more rare. Its main cause is the surgical manipulation of the prostate, as in a prostatectomy, which is the surgical removal of the gland to treat cancer. While doing this procedure, the bladder sphincter, which lies below the prostate, can be damaged, leading to the weakening and malfunction of the sphincter.

Chronic sneezing and coughing, obesity, smoking, drinking alcohol, and high impact activities like weightlifting or running are included as other factors that can increase the possibilities to suffer from urinary stress incontinence.

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3. How is urinary stress incontinence diagnosed?

To be sure someone suffers from urinary stress incontinence, the doctor will carry out some of the following tests:

Urinary stress test: the doctor will ask the patient to cough while standing to see if there is any urine leakage.

Pad test: women have to use a sanitary pad, while men use a special pad during an entire day or just while they are exercising to see how much urine they loss.

Cystometry test: with this test the doctor can measure the pressure of the bladder and the urine flow.

Urine analysis: this test allows the doctor to see if there is something abnormal in the urine like bacteria, blood, protein, or sugar.

Neurological exam: doctors need to see if there is any problem with the pelvic nerves that can generate incontinence.

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4. What are the treatments available for urinary stress incontinence?

There are many ways to treat this annoying condition, from simple bladder and pelvic muscles exercises to surgical procedures. Just by doing simple lifestyle changes such as losing some weight, avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and cigarettes, practising regular exercises, etc., the patient can reduce bladder pressure, improving her or his day to day life.

The most common exercises to improve urinary stress incontinence symptoms are the Kegel exercises, which help to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. Patients can do them anywhere at any time, without being noticed. These consist of squeezing the muscles that stop the urine flow for some minutes, a few times a day. It is basically the contraction of the pelvic floor muscles.

IncontiLase® is a non-invasive Er:YAG laser therapy for the treatment of mild and moderate stress urinary incontinence, based on non-ablative photothermal stimulation of collagen neogenesis, shrinking and tightening of vaginal mucosa tissue and collagen-rich endopelvic fascia, and subsequently greater support to the bladder. You can read more about Incontilase in our leaflet library below.

Regarding the surgical procedures, the TVT and the TOT are widely performed. The TVT (tension-free vaginal tape) consists of placing a synthetic mesh around the urethra of the patient, increasing the positive pressure around the structures that allow urine flow.

The other procedure, the TOT (trans-obturator tape), consists of placing a permanent tape under the urethra. The purpose is basically the same as the TVT.

The success rates of the surgical procedures are between 82% and 96%. While these treatments help to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence, these rarely completely cure them. However, after surgery, the patient will be able to have an almost normal life, at least more than before.

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Acute pelvic inflammatory disease

Anterior Vaginal Repair

Bladder Diary

Bladder Training

Botulinum Toxin




Continence Pads and Perineal Care


da Vinci robotic surgery

Fascial Slings

Genitourinary Fistula

Intermittent Self Catheterization

Interstitial Cystitis

Low-Dose Vaginal Estrogen Therapy

Maternal Pelvic Floor Trauma

Mid Urethral Slings

Overactive Bladder

Pelvic Floor Exercises

Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation

Posterior Vaginal Wall & Perineal Body Repair

Recovery Guide After Vaginal Surgery

Rectovaginal Fistula

Sacral Neuromodulation


Sacrospinous Fixation

Stress Urinary Incontinence

Third and Fourth Degree Perineal Tears

Transperineal Pelvic Floor Ultrasound

Transvaginal Laser Treatment

Urethral Bulking

Urinary Tract Infection


Uterine Preservation

Uterosacral Ligament Suspension

Vaginal Hysterectomy for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Vaginal Pessary for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Vaginal Repair with Mesh

All pages, articles, downloads, blog posts and content on this website are purely for informational purposes. They are not intended as a substitute for medical advice. You should always seek this from your medical practitioner.